Clothing materials and parts.
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Developed in the s and s by Samuel Morse and other inventors, the telegraph revolutionized long-distance communication. It worked by transmitting electrical signals over a wire laid between stations. In addition to helping invent the telegraph, Samuel Morse The automobile was first invented and perfected in Germany and France in the late s, though Americans quickly came to dominate the automotive industry in the first half of the twentieth century.
Henry Ford innovated mass-production techniques that became standard, and Ford, The automated teller machine, or ATM, is such a complicated piece of technology that it does not have a single inventor.
Whitney Moves On Patent-law issues prevented Whitney from ever significantly profiting from the cotton gin; however, in , he secured a contract from the U. Cotton Gin and Eli Whitney. Alexander Graham Bell's Early Recordings. Before Einstein was Famous. In Iran Persia , the history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era 5th century BC ; however, there are few sources about the planting of cotton in pre-Islamic Iran.
The planting of cotton was common in Merv , Ray and Pars of Iran. In Persian poets ' poems, especially Ferdowsi 's Shahname , there are references to cotton "panbe" in Persian.
Marco Polo 13th century refers to the major products of Persia, including cotton. John Chardin , a French traveler of the 17th century who visited Safavid Persia , spoke approvingly of the vast cotton farms of Persia.
Egyptians grew and spun cotton in the first seven centuries of the Christian era. Handheld roller cotton gins had been used in India since the 6th century, and was then introduced to other countries from there. The Indian version of the dual-roller gin was prevalent throughout the Mediterranean cotton trade by the 16th century. This mechanical device was, in some areas, driven by water power.
The spinning wheel was invented in India, between and AD. During the late medieval period, cotton became known as an imported fiber in northern Europe, without any knowledge of how it was derived, other than that it was a plant.
Because Herodotus had written in his Histories , Book III, , that in India trees grew in the wild producing wool, it was assumed that the plant was a tree, rather than a shrub. This aspect is retained in the name for cotton in several Germanic languages, such as German Baumwolle , which translates as "tree wool" Baum means "tree"; Wolle means "wool".
Noting its similarities to wool, people in the region could only imagine that cotton must be produced by plant-borne sheep. John Mandeville , writing in , stated as fact that "There grew there [India] a wonderful tree which bore tiny lambs on the endes of its branches.
These branches were so pliable that they bent down to allow the lambs to feed when they are hungry. By the end of the 16th century, cotton was cultivated throughout the warmer regions in Asia and the Americas. Cotton manufacture was introduced to Europe during the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily. The knowledge of cotton weaving was spread to northern Italy in the 12th century, when Sicily was conquered by the Normans , and consequently to the rest of Europe.
The spinning wheel , introduced to Europe circa , improved the speed of cotton spinning. Under the Mughal Empire , which ruled in the Indian subcontinent from the early 16th century to the early 18th century, Indian cotton production increased, in terms of both raw cotton and cotton textiles.
The Mughals introduced agrarian reforms such as a new revenue system that was biased in favour of higher value cash crops such as cotton and indigo , providing state incentives to grow cash crops, in addition to rising market demand. The largest manufacturing industry in the Mughal Empire was cotton textile manufacturing , which included the production of piece goods , calicos , and muslins , available unbleached and in a variety of colours.
The cotton textile industry was responsible for a large part of the empire's international trade. The worm gear roller cotton gin , which was invented in India during the early Delhi Sultanate era of the 13th—14th centuries, came into use in the Mughal Empire some time around the 16th century,  and is still used in India through to the present day.
The diffusion of the spinning wheel, and the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the roller cotton gin, led to greatly expanded Indian cotton textile production during the Mughal era.
It was reported that, with an Indian cotton gin, which is half machine and half tool, one man and one woman could clean 28 pounds of cotton per day. With a modified Forbes version, one man and a boy could produce pounds per day. If oxen were used to power 16 of these machines, and a few people's labour was used to feed them, they could produce as much work as people did formerly.
In the early 19th century, a Frenchman named M. Jumel proposed to the great ruler of Egypt , Mohamed Ali Pasha , that he could earn a substantial income by growing an extra-long staple Maho Gossypium barbadense cotton, in Lower Egypt , for the French market. Mohamed Ali Pasha accepted the proposition and granted himself the monopoly on the sale and export of cotton in Egypt; and later dictated cotton should be grown in preference to other crops.
Egypt under Muhammad Ali in the early 19th century had the fifth most productive cotton industry in the world, in terms of the number of spindles per capita. Exports continued to grow even after the reintroduction of US cotton, produced now by a paid workforce, and Egyptian exports reached 1. The English East India Company introduced the Britain to cheap calico and chintz cloth on the restoration of the monarchy in the s.
Initially imported as a novelty side line, from its spice trading posts in Asia, the cheap colourful cloth proved popular and overtook the EIC's spice trade by value in the late 17th century. The EIC embraced the demand, particularly for calico , by expanding its factories in Asia and producing and importing cloth in bulk, creating competition for domestic woollen and linen textile producers. The impacted weavers, spinners, dyers, shepherds and farmers objected and the calico question became one of the major issues of National politics between the s and the s.
Parliament began to see a decline in domestic textile sales, and an increase in imported textiles from places like China and India.
Seeing the East India Company and their textile importation as a threat to domestic textile businesses, Parliament passed the Calico Act, blocking the importation of cotton cloth.
As there was no punishment for continuing to sell cotton cloth, smuggling of the popular material became commonplace. In , dissatisfied with the results of the first act, Parliament passed a stricter addition, this time prohibiting the sale of most cottons, imported and domestic exempting only thread Fustian and raw cotton. The exemption of raw cotton from the prohibition initially saw 2 thousand bales of cotton imported annually, to become the basis of a new indigenous industry, initially producing Fustian for the domestic market, though more importantly triggering the development of a series of mechanised spinning and weaving technologies, to process the material.
This mechanised production was concentrated in new cotton mills , which slowly expanded till by the beginning of the s seven thousand bales of cotton were imported annually, and pressure was put on Parliament, by the new mill owners, to remove the prohibition on the production and sale of pure cotton cloth, as they could easily compete with anything the EIC could import.
The acts were repealed in , triggering a wave of investment in mill based cotton spinning and production, doubling the demand for raw cotton within a couple of years, and doubling it again every decade, into the s .
Indian cotton textiles, particularly those from Bengal , continued to maintain a competitive advantage up until the 19th century. In order to compete with India, Britain invested in labour-saving technical progress, while implementing protectionist policies such as bans and tariffs to restrict Indian imports.
India's cotton-processing sector changed during EIC expansion in India in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. From focusing on supplying the British market to supplying East Asia with raw cotton. As the Artisan produced textiles were no longer competitive with those produced Industrially, and Europe preferring the cheaper slave produced, long staple American, and Egyptian cottons, for its own materials.
The advent of the Industrial Revolution in Britain provided a great boost to cotton manufacture, as textiles emerged as Britain's leading export. In , Lewis Paul and John Wyatt , of Birmingham , England, patented the roller spinning machine, as well as the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing cotton to a more even thickness using two sets of rollers that traveled at different speeds.
Later, the invention of the James Hargreaves ' spinning jenny in , Richard Arkwright 's spinning frame in and Samuel Crompton 's spinning mule in enabled British spinners to produce cotton yarn at much higher rates.
From the late 18th century on, the British city of Manchester acquired the nickname " Cottonopolis " due to the cotton industry's omnipresence within the city, and Manchester's role as the heart of the global cotton trade. Production capacity in Britain and the United States was improved by the invention of the modern cotton gin by the American Eli Whitney in Before the development of cotton gins, the cotton fibers had to be pulled from the seeds tediously by hand.
By the late s, a number of crude ginning machines had been developed. However, to produce a bale of cotton required over hours of human labor,  making large-scale production uneconomical in the United States, even with the use of humans as slave labor.
The gin that Whitney manufactured the Holmes design reduced the hours down to just a dozen or so per bale. Although Whitney patented his own design for a cotton gin, he manufactured a prior design from Henry Odgen Holmes , for which Holmes filed a patent in By the s, India was no longer capable of supplying the vast quantities of cotton fibers needed by mechanized British factories, while shipping bulky, low-price cotton from India to Britain was time-consuming and expensive.
This, coupled with the emergence of American cotton as a superior type due to the longer, stronger fibers of the two domesticated Native American species, Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense , encouraged British traders to purchase cotton from plantations in the United States and plantations in the Caribbean. By the midth century, " King Cotton " had become the backbone of the southern American economy.
In the United States, cultivating and harvesting cotton became the leading occupation of slaves. During the American Civil War , American cotton exports slumped due to a Union blockade on Southern ports , and also because of a strategic decision by the Confederate government to cut exports, hoping to force Britain to recognize the Confederacy or enter the war.
This prompted the main purchasers of cotton, Britain and France , to turn to Egyptian cotton. British and French traders invested heavily in cotton plantations. The Egyptian government of Viceroy Isma'il took out substantial loans from European bankers and stock exchanges. After the American Civil War ended in , British and French traders abandoned Egyptian cotton and returned to cheap American exports, [ citation needed ] sending Egypt into a deficit spiral that led to the country declaring bankruptcy in , a key factor behind Egypt's occupation by the British Empire in During this time, cotton cultivation in the British Empire , especially Australia and India, greatly increased to replace the lost production of the American South.
Through tariffs and other restrictions, the British government discouraged the production of cotton cloth in India; rather, the raw fiber was sent to England for processing. The Indian Mahatma Gandhi described the process:. In the United States, Southern cotton provided capital for the continuing development of the North. The cotton was largely produced through the labor of enslaved African Americans. It enriched both the Southern landowners and the Northern merchants.
Much of the Southern cotton was trans-shipped through northern ports. In this era the slogan "Cotton is king" characterized the attitude of the South toward this monocrop.
Cotton remained a key crop in the Southern economy after emancipation and the end of the Civil War in Across the South, sharecropping evolved, in which landless black and white farmers worked land owned by others in return for a share of the profits.
Some farmers rented the land and bore the production costs themselves. Until mechanical cotton pickers were developed, cotton farmers needed additional labor to hand-pick cotton. Picking cotton was a source of income for families across the South.
Rural and small town school systems had split vacations so children could work in the fields during "cotton-picking. It was not until the s that reliable harvesting machinery was introduced prior to this, cotton-harvesting machinery had been too clumsy to pick cotton without shredding the fibers. Cotton remains a major export of the southern United States , and a majority of the world's annual cotton crop is of the long-staple American variety.
Soils usually need to be fairly heavy, although the level of nutrients does not need to be exceptional. In general, these conditions are met within the seasonally dry tropics and subtropics in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, but a large proportion of the cotton grown today is cultivated in areas with less rainfall that obtain the water from irrigation. Production of the crop for a given year usually starts soon after harvesting the preceding autumn.
Cotton is naturally a perennial but is grown as an annual to help control pests. The area of the United States known as the South Plains is the largest contiguous cotton-growing region in the world. While dryland non-irrigated cotton is successfully grown in this region, consistent yields are only produced with heavy reliance on irrigation water drawn from the Ogallala Aquifer. Since cotton is somewhat salt and drought tolerant, this makes it an attractive crop for arid and semiarid regions.
As water resources get tighter around the world, economies that rely on it face difficulties and conflict, as well as potential environmental problems. In the days of the Soviet Union , the Aral Sea was tapped for agricultural irrigation, largely of cotton, and now salination is widespread.
Cotton can also be cultivated to have colors other than the yellowish off-white typical of modern commercial cotton fibers. Naturally colored cotton can come in red, green, and several shades of brown. Genetically modified GM cotton was developed to reduce the heavy reliance on pesticides. The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Bt naturally produces a chemical harmful only to a small fraction of insects, most notably the larvae of moths and butterflies , beetles , and flies , and harmless to other forms of life.
In many regions, the main pests in commercial cotton are lepidopteran larvae, which are killed by the Bt protein in the transgenic cotton they eat. This eliminates the need to use large amounts of broad-spectrum insecticides to kill lepidopteran pests some of which have developed pyrethroid resistance. This spares natural insect predators in the farm ecology and further contributes to noninsecticide pest management.
But Bt cotton is ineffective against many cotton pests, however, such as plant bugs , stink bugs , and aphids ; depending on circumstances it may still be desirable to use insecticides against these. A study done by Cornell researchers, the Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy and the Chinese Academy of Science on Bt cotton farming in China found that after seven years these secondary pests that were normally controlled by pesticide had increased, necessitating the use of pesticides at similar levels to non-Bt cotton and causing less profit for farmers because of the extra expense of GM seeds.
The secondary pests were mostly miridae plant bugs whose increase was related to local temperature and rainfall and only continued to increase in half the villages studied. Moreover, the increase in insecticide use for the control of these secondary insects was far smaller than the reduction in total insecticide use due to Bt cotton adoption. A Chinese study concluded that Bt cotton halved the use of pesticides and doubled the level of ladybirds, lacewings and spiders.
GM cotton acreage in India grew at a rapid rate, increasing from 50, hectares in to The total cotton area in India was This made India the country with the largest area of GM cotton in the world. GM cotton crop was 4. Cotton has been genetically modified for resistance to glyphosate a broad-spectrum herbicide discovered by Monsanto which also sells some of the Bt cotton seeds to farmers. There are also a number of other cotton seed companies selling GM cotton around the world.
Cotton has gossypol , a toxin that makes it inedible. Working environments are better for those on farms and small-scale farmers save money by not having to buy large amount of pesticides.
Consumers benefit too, some suggest that organic cotton products are softer and easier on your skin. Recent awareness of these benefits has increased demand of organic cotton and thus, lowered its cost. Many companies now have organic cotton products. The Organic Cotton Directory is a great resource for finding other organic products. Organic cotton is much better than usual cotton. The usual cotton is machine-cleaned. This is the first factor that reduces the quality of the finished product.
Fall into main raw leaves and poisonous cotton seeds, the poison of which protects the seed from pests, make cotton "dirty". Then different chemicals are used. Organic cotton is grown to preserve both the environment and human health. The production of organic cotton does not use machine cleaning. Clothing made from organic cotton is very comfortable. To buy high-quality eco-clothes made of organic cotton, it is worth buying only in popular stores. Personally, I buy in the online store - https: Also, organic cotton clothes are very useful for children.
For my wife and for our child I buy only clothes made from organic cotton. Organic Cotton Clothing has helped with a skin sensitivity issue probably from the chemicals and pesticides from conventional cotton. My Organic Access has a nice line of affordable organics for all ages!
Uses of Cotton
Cotton is used for virtually every type of clothing, from coats and jackets to foundation garments. Most of its apparel usage, however, is for men and boys’ clothing. Cotton supplies over 70% of this market, with jeans, shirts and underwear being major items. In home furnishings, cotton’s uses range from bedspreads to window shades. Cotton fibre can be woven or knitted into fabrics such as velvet, corduroy, chambray, velour, jersey and flannel. In addition to textile products like underwear, socks and t-shirts, cotton is also used in fishnets, coffee filters, book binding and archival paper. Cotton is a food AND a fibre crop. Cotton seed is fed to cattle and crushed to make oil. Cotton is a main fabric used in underwear, from briefs to undershirts. Since cotton is breathable, absorbent and soft, it's ideal for use in garments that are close to the body. Bedding. Cotton makes up more than 60 percent of the market for sheets, pillowcases and bedspreads.